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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Report

Retrofit of CO2 Capture to Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 1 January 2005
  • Capture

Most of the power plants currently being built in developed countries are natural gas fired combined cycle plants. Such plants could potentially be good candidates for CO2 capture retrofit because they are relatively new and have high thermal efficiencies. This study assesses the feasibility and costs of retrofitting CO2 capture to modern natural gas combined cycle plants. The study was carried out by Jacobs Consultancy Netherland B.V.

Technical Report

Oxy-combustion Processes for CO2 Capture from Power Plant

  • 1 July 2005
  • Capture

The IEAGHG R&D programme has completed several studies on the costs of CO2 capture from power plants using post combustion and pre-combustion capture technology. The costs of oxy-combustion capture have not been studied to the same depth because of the immaturity of the technology. Although commercial examples of the technology are still not in existence it is now felt that there has been sufficient advance in knowledge to attempt a cost study of similar accuracy. The process is applicable to both natural gas and coal fired power plant although the equipment used for the different fuels is quite different. There are many oxy-combustion process variants some of which are still in early stages of development. For example processes are proposed which use dense oxygen conducting membranes or recycle of water rather than CO2. It would be difficult to generate firm costs for process using such novel elements. The brief given to the contractor was to select a gas fired and a coal fired process which would make use of existing designs and not represent any significant stepout beyond accepted limits. For the coal fired case this essentially means maintaining sufficient CO2 recirculation so as not to radically alter velocities and heat fluxes in the radiant and convective parts of a conventional pulverized coal boiler. For the gas fired case which would be a combined cycle gas turbine with CO2 recycle the situation is more difficult since a new gas turbine model would have to be developed. The brief was to base this machine on existing design limitations and practices so that the changes would be minimized. The commercial costing of this machine remains difficult since the price will be highly dependent on the size of the market.

Technical Report

CO2 Capture in Low Rank Coal Power Plants

  • 1 November 2005
  • Capture

Until now, IEA GHG’s studies on coal-based power plants with CO2 capture have concentrated mainly on high rank (bituminous) coals but it is recognised that low-rank coals (sub-bituminous coal, lignite and brown coal) are important fuels for power generation in several countries. A study has therefore been carried out to estimate the performance and costs of low rank coal fired power plants with CO2 capture based on various technologies. The study was carried out for IEA GHG by Foster Wheeler Italiana. This overview written by IEA GHG summarises the results of the study and puts them in context with results from other studies carried out recently by IEA GHG. More detailed technical information is included in the Executive Summary in Foster Wheeler’s report.

Technical Report

International Test Network for CO2 Capture: Report on 8th Workshop

  • 1 November 2005
  • Capture
  • Event Proceedings

This workshop was the eighth in a series to discuss co-operation in development of MEA and related solvents to capture CO2 from power plant flue gases. The previous events were in Gaithersburg, Calgary, Apeldoorn, Kyoto, Pittsburgh, Trondheim, and Vancouver. Copies of all the reports from and including the Apeldoorn meeting are available on CD

Technical Report

Permitting Issues for CO2 Capture and Geological Storage

  • 1 December 2005
  • Capture
  • Storage

The capture and storage of CO2 in geological formations is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such projects will involve very large investments in plant, pipelines, wells and reservoir development. As with most large undertakings it will be essential to obtain permits for a whole range of activities which have to be carried out in order to implement such projects. Obtaining permits has been a major constraint on the rapid deployment of many new technologies and can cause considerable delay and effort even when implementing proven systems. To ensure that CO2 capture and storage can be deployed successfully in the required timescales any issues that may arise during permitting of CO2 capture and storage projects need to be identified as early as possible and permitting procedures developed and agreed. This study was commissioned to provide an overview of permitting issues in CCS projects and provide some guidance to operators and regulators who are concerned with the technology.

Technical Report

Development of PPAP - Power Plant Assessment Program

  • 1 December 2005
  • Capture

The IEA Greenhouse gas R&D programme has conducted many studies on CO2 capture from large power stations. Such studies are normally conducted by an experienced contractor and typically cost upwards of £40,000. In order to perform such studies leading to a capital costs estimate within +-30% it is necessary to have a reasonably detailed description of the process and all of the main equipment which is required. In addition the contractor needs to have a reliable database of cost information on the equipment. From time to time novel schemes are put forward but detailed evaluation is inhibited by the high cost of a full study. Furthermore factors other than cost may be important in determining how interesting a novel system is and it may be difficult to predict the cost of exotic equipment. IEAGHG thus developed a simple assessment program in order to be able to carry out a first screening of novel process without incurring large costs. This report summarises the work which has been done on the development of this computer program and the experience with using it on a number of novel schemes.

Technical Report

Low greenhouse gas emission transport fuels: the impact of CO2 capture and storage on selected pathways

  • 1 December 2005
  • Capture
  • Storage

In assessing the environmental impact of transport technology options, it is necessary to consider the impact of each of the stages of fuel extraction, refining, distribution and use in the vehicle. This needs to be done in a systematic way for the ‘novel’ systems considered, as well as for reference cases. The approach requires a form of life-cycle analysis which, in the transport, field has come to be known as Well-to-Wheels analysis (WTW). A subset of this analysis covers the production of the fuel up to the point where it is dispensed into the vehicle’s fuel tank – this is known as Well-to-Tank analysis; the second part of the chain is Tank-to-Wheels analysis (WTT and TTW respectively). In the main report the component WTT and TTW data are discussed in depth but in this overview the emphasis is on the overall WTW results.The study is set in the Netherlands; representative of a European location. The vehicle fleet for each type of fuel is assumed to be large enough that economies of scale can be expected in distribution and in vehicle costs. Some consideration is also given to how the results would be affected if set in a North American location.

Technical Report

Estimating the Future Trends in the Cost of CO2 Capture Technologies

  • 1 February 2006
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) has carried out studies to assess the performance and costs of various plants with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). These assessments have mostly been based on current technology and component cost data. This approach has the advantage of avoiding subjective judgements of what may or may not happen in the future. The disadvantage is that it does not take into account the potential for future improvements which could affect the long-term competitiveness of a technology.Reductions in the costs of technologies resulting from learning-by-doing and other factors have been systematically observed over many decades. Major factors contributing to cost reductions include, but are not limited to, improvements in technology design, materials, product standardisation, system integration or optimisation, economies of scale and reductions in input prices. This study analyses cost reductions that have been achieved for a range of process technologies and uses that information to predict possible future trends in the costs of power plants with CO2 capture.

Technical Report

CO2 Capture as a Factor in Power Station Investment Decisions

  • 1 May 2006
  • Capture

There is increasing interest in capture and storage of CO2 from fossil fuel fired power stations, to mitigate climate change. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) has recently carried out studies to assess the performance and costs of various types of power station incorporating CO2 capture. IEA GHG has commissioned Mott MacDonald to pull together the results from these studies on a consistent basis and review features of the technologies which may be important for plant investors. The opinions of a range of potential investors were surveyed and the results of the survey were combined with the technology evaluations using a multi-criteria analysis, to show how far each technology matches the surveyed investor preferences.

Technical Report

International Network for CO2 Capture: Report on 9th Workshop

  • 1 June 2006
  • Capture
  • Event Proceedings

Carbon dioxide capture and storage is now established in OECD countries’ energy policies and R&D programmes as a potential contributor to climate mitigation strategies. Post combustion capture allied to improved efficiency power plant looks likely to be a major element for new plant as markets develop – particularly so in developing countries where there is a clear preference for using the best established technologies for power generation. Retrofit to established plant is also technically feasible although less economically attractive for ageing, less efficient assets. Since the previous workshop a number of generators in Europe and Canada have expressed interest in the possibilities of demonstrating the technology at full scale and a major pilot plant operation under the EU CASTOR programme has commenced at a power station near Esbjerg in Denmark. About a quarter of the workshop participants used the opportunity to visit this new facility on the day previous to the workshop – thanks from all participants to Elsam for hosting this visit.

Technical Report

International Oxy-Combustion Network for CO2 Capture: Report on Inaugural Workshop

  • 1 July 2006
  • Capture
  • Event Proceedings

The aim of this Network for Oxy-Fuel Combustion is to provide an international forum for organisations with interest in the development of Oxy-Fuel Combustion Technology.Due to the broadness of this topic, it was decided to focus the theme of the first workshop on the “Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Coal Fired Power Plant”. Nevertheless, the future workshop will also attend to the development in Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Gas Fired Power Plants and other novel oxy-combustion processes.

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