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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Review

Integrated GHG accounting guidelines for CCUS

  • 1 November 2019
  • Policy & Regulation

This report sets out accounting guidelines for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and emissions reduction effects arising from technologies involving carbon dioxide capture, utilisation and geological storage (CCUS).The guidelines apply a project- and product-based approach to measure GHG emission reduction effects, based on comparing the emissions for a CCUS activity with the emissions from a comparable activity delivering the same product or service.A modular approach is applied. Firstly, users calculate the GHG effects arising from the capture (and transport) of CO2 based on the avoided emissions from providing the same service or product as output from the CO2 source facility, but without CO2 capture.The resulting estimate of GHG effects from CO2 capture is carried forward to the utilisation or storage step. In this subsequent step, the GHG emissions from providing the same service without using captured CO2 is estimated and compared to the GHG emissions of providing the service using captured CO2. This provides an overall estimate of the cradle-to-gate GHG effect of CCUS activities.Additional guidance is provided on cradle-to-grave assessment, although this is not the primary focus of these guidelines – the Guidelines focus on annualised GHG emissions accounting cycles rather than whole life emissions analysis.

Technical Report

CCS and the Sustainable Development Goals

  • 15 December 2020
  • Policy & Regulation

The overall objective of this assessment was to improve the availability and accessibility of information regarding the relevance of CCS in contributing to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. The primary objective was achieved through the completion of three key goals: <ol> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>Collation of existing information on impacts of CCS on specific targets of the 17 SDGs, using the rating, scoring and information assessment as per IPCC’s SR1.5,</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>Articulation of specific gaps in information, and</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> </ol> Proposal of a path forward by providing a prioritised lists of gap closures.There is a growing body of literature orientated towards converting climate action into policies directed towards implementation of SDGs. There is also a trend of material becoming available examining the interaction of technologies and sectors against SDGs. CCS remains a complex technological solution to climate change, and public understanding of the technology remains low. This study can help to substantiate the wider value of CCS, but it can also highlight points of attention/action on potentially negative interactions with specific SDGs.

Technical Review

Exporting CO2 for Offshore Storage – The London Protocol’s Export Amendment and Associated Guidelines and Guidance

  • 12 April 2021
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Storage

The London Convention and London Protocol are the global treaties that protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes. Since 2006, the London Protocol has provided a basis in international environmental law to allow carbon dioxide (CO2) storage beneath the seabed when it is safe to do so, and to regulate the injection of CO2 into sub-seabed geological formations for permanent isolation. However, Article 6 of the London Protocol prohibits the export of waste or other matter for dumping in the marine environment. Therefore in 2019, Contracting Parties to the London Protocol adopted a resolution to allow provisional application of the 2009 amendment to Article 6 of the Protocol to allow export of CO2 for storage in sub-seabed geological formations in advance of its ratification, which was progressing slowly.

Technical Review

CCUS in national GHG inventories

  • 28 June 2021
  • Policy & Regulation

This report builds upon previous IEAGHG studies on the topic of carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) in order to assess the potential of a portfolio of CCU technologies to contribute towards Japan’s climate change mitigation goals in 2030 and 2050.

Technical Report

Applying ISO Standards to Geologic Storage and EOR Projects

  • 1 September 2022
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Storage

The work aims to summarise and synthesise the two ISO Standards relevant to the geological storage of CO2: – ISO 27914:2017 (‘Carbon dioxide capture, transportation and geological storage - Geological storage’) and ISO 27916:2019 (‘Carbon dioxide capture, transportation and geological storage - Carbon dioxide storage using enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR)’) – to provide a high-level understanding of the content into an easily digestible format. By comparison with international regulatory frameworks, and providing case studies of how applicable the standards are to real CO2 storage projects, the study provides a comprehensive overview and concludes on the usefulness of the documents in supporting the implementation of CCUS projects. For the purposes of this overview, the standards will hereafter be referred to as ISO 27914 and ISO 27916

Technical Report

Integrating CCS in international cooperation and carbon markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement

  • 18 January 2023
  • Policy & Regulation

This work assesses the status of and outlooks for international cooperation under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and considers how approaches could support the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS). It provides an up-to-date look at the Article 6 rules, the types of markets and mechanisms that could evolve, and the units that could be traded. It then considers how Article 6 could apply to CCS through linked emissions trading systems, crediting systems and alternative approaches.

Technical Report

International Standards and Testing for Novel Carbonaceous Building Materials

  • 1 December 2023
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Utilisation

Over 4 billion tonnes of cement are produced each year, equating to approximately 8% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and this industry will continue to grow with the expansion of the built environment at a time that emissions need to be reduced. The utilisation or reduction of CO2 within cement, concrete and building materials could be a valuable way to contribute to emissions reductions in the sector , but there are several barriers, including the current state of standards, regulations and policies. This study will provide useful information for the technical and research community, the CCUS industry, the construction industry, and policymakers, providing an unbiased and non-prescriptive evaluation of international standards and testing relevant to novel carbonaceous building materials to address some of those barriers. The market potential for CO2 utilisation processes in the construction industry is also investigated, and the methods for certifying and measuring embodied carbon content of carbonated building materials is evaluated and the challenges therein.

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