Various options for refineries are available depending, not only on the complexity and degree of integration, but also on whether a refinery already exists or is still at the planning stage.
In addition to these general considerations, the regional location, crude mix and local markets for refined products and electricity all influence the design, complexity and economic viability of 'clean refineries'. All these elements were combined to produce three hypothetical refinery designs at different scales and levels of complexity. Three refinery designs were also configured in three different countries to reflect regional variations in refined product markets and crude supply.
The study then explored the potential for carbon emission capture for each design and electricity generation for export where this was appropriate. It concluded with an economic analysis of each design based on recent crude prices and local market values