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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Report

Retrofit of CO2 Capture to Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 1 January 2005
  • Capture

Most of the power plants currently being built in developed countries are natural gas fired combined cycle plants. Such plants could potentially be good candidates for CO2 capture retrofit because they are relatively new and have high thermal efficiencies. This study assesses the feasibility and costs of retrofitting CO2 capture to modern natural gas combined cycle plants. The study was carried out by Jacobs Consultancy Netherland B.V.

Technical Report

Building the Cost Curves for CO2 Storage: European Sector

  • 1 February 2005
  • Costs of CCUS
  • Storage

This report reviews the development of a CO2 storage cost curve for Europe. The study has been carried out by The Netherlands Geological Survey (TNO-NITG) in co-operation with the geological surveys of Britain (BGS) and Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).

Technical Report

Building the Cost Curves for CO2 Storage: North America

  • 1 February 2005
  • Costs of CCUS
  • Storage

This report reviews the development of a CO2 storage cost curve for North America, which covers on-shore USA and Canada. The study has been carried out by Battelle, USA in co-operation with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Canada.

Technical Report

Monitoring Workshop – Inaugural Meeting

  • 1 March 2005
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

The objective of the workshop was to get a common understanding of the current state of the art, to identify the techniques available, and to assess their limitations. This was achieved by using the results available from projects that are currently monitoring injected CO2. The aim was then to develop a view of where the technology needs to go from here, in order to develop stakeholder confidence that injected CO2 can be monitored and verified and any leakage quickly detected

Technical Report

Natural Analogues for the Geological Storage of CO2

  • 1 March 2005
  • Storage

This is the final report of the Natural Analogues for the Storage of CO2 in the Geological Environment (NASCENT) project. The Nascent project has studied natural accumulations of carbon dioxide (CO2 – an important greenhouse gas, thought to be responsible for climate change) as analogues of the geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.Before large-scale underground CO2 storage can take place, it will be necessary to demonstrate that the processes are well understood, risks to the environment and human populations are low, and environmental disturbances can be minimised. One way of demonstrating that CO2 can remain trapped underground for geologically significant timescales is to provide evidence from existing naturally occurring accumulations. These accumulations occur in a variety of geological environments and many can be demonstrated to have retained CO2 for periods longer than those being considered for CO2 storage.

Technical Report

Oxy-combustion Processes for CO2 Capture from Power Plant

  • 1 July 2005
  • Capture

The IEAGHG R&D programme has completed several studies on the costs of CO2 capture from power plants using post combustion and pre-combustion capture technology. The costs of oxy-combustion capture have not been studied to the same depth because of the immaturity of the technology. Although commercial examples of the technology are still not in existence it is now felt that there has been sufficient advance in knowledge to attempt a cost study of similar accuracy. The process is applicable to both natural gas and coal fired power plant although the equipment used for the different fuels is quite different. There are many oxy-combustion process variants some of which are still in early stages of development. For example processes are proposed which use dense oxygen conducting membranes or recycle of water rather than CO2. It would be difficult to generate firm costs for process using such novel elements. The brief given to the contractor was to select a gas fired and a coal fired process which would make use of existing designs and not represent any significant stepout beyond accepted limits. For the coal fired case this essentially means maintaining sufficient CO2 recirculation so as not to radically alter velocities and heat fluxes in the radiant and convective parts of a conventional pulverized coal boiler. For the gas fired case which would be a combined cycle gas turbine with CO2 recycle the situation is more difficult since a new gas turbine model would have to be developed. The brief was to base this machine on existing design limitations and practices so that the changes would be minimized. The commercial costing of this machine remains difficult since the price will be highly dependent on the size of the market.

Technical Report

Launch Meeting of the Risk Assessment Network

  • 23 August 2005
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

This report summarises the major outcomes of the launch meeting of the Risk Assessment Network which was jointly organised by IEA GHG and TNO with the support of EPRI. It was held at the TNO offices in Utrecht, Netherlands, 23-24 August 2005. This international meeting was attended by 40 delegates from industry and research institutes drawn from nine countries.

Technical Report

A Review of Natural CO2 Occurrences and Releases and their Relevance to CO2 Storage

  • 1 September 2005
  • Storage

The aim of this study was to evaluate natural occurrences of CO2 leakage and compare and contrast them with engineered storage of CO2 in geological formations. The objective of the study was to provide a reference manual for IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme members and others interested in the subject, to provide a factual and balanced review of natural CO2 releases and their relevance to geological CO2 storage.

Technical Report

CO2 Storage by Mineral Carbonation

  • 1 September 2005
  • Storage
  • Utilisation

In 2000 the IEA GHG R&D programme issued a comprehensive report on technologies for capture of CO2 using mineral carbonation. This report evaluated 6 candidate processes but concluded that only one process involving a hot melt of magnesium chloride showed any promise. Mineral carbonation is attractive as a CO2 storage option because of its permanency but would involve mining, processing and re-depositing of massive quantities of material. In the mean time research has continued and it was felt that it was timely to conduct a more up to date study. As a first step a short review of recent developments and literature was commissioned to ascertain whether it was worthwhile going ahead with a full scale study.

Technical Report

Well Bore Integrity Workshop Houston, TX, USA, 4-5 April 2005

  • 1 September 2005
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

The integrity of well bores, their long-term ability to retain CO2, has been identified as a significant potential risk for the long-term security of geological storage facilities. A workshop was held in April 2005 to bring together over 50 experts from both industrial operators and from research organisations. Industrial operations are part of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects or acid gas waste disposal projects. Current research includes laboratory investigations that attempt to simulate long-term geochemical and mechanical processes that may affect well completion materials – mainly cement; field studies of well completions that have been exposed to CO2 during industrial projects as described above, and modelling studies, both of local reactions and upscaled simulations of leakage across basins.

Technical Report

CO2 Capture in Low Rank Coal Power Plants

  • 1 November 2005
  • Capture

Until now, IEA GHG’s studies on coal-based power plants with CO2 capture have concentrated mainly on high rank (bituminous) coals but it is recognised that low-rank coals (sub-bituminous coal, lignite and brown coal) are important fuels for power generation in several countries. A study has therefore been carried out to estimate the performance and costs of low rank coal fired power plants with CO2 capture based on various technologies. The study was carried out for IEA GHG by Foster Wheeler Italiana. This overview written by IEA GHG summarises the results of the study and puts them in context with results from other studies carried out recently by IEA GHG. More detailed technical information is included in the Executive Summary in Foster Wheeler’s report.

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