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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Report

Clean steel an environmental and technoeconomic outlook of a disruptive technology

  • 1 March 2024
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

This study primarily presents a comparative analysis of steelmaking pathways to cost-effectively decarbonise a steel mill, taking a life-cycle perspective on associated environmental impacts. The roll-out of clean steel technologies is envisioned to have a significant implication for support infrastructure. Therefore, a secondary objective of the study is to gain insights into the primary energy and infrastructure implications associated with large-scale deployment of different steel decarbonisation pathways. Clean steel production will likely be more expensive than steel produced today; this poses additional economic strains on steel producers and consumers. Consequently, a third objective is to estimate the price premium that clean steel could command in existing and future markets. Further, this study formulates recommendations for key stakeholders to support the sector and outlines recommendations for further work.

Technical Report

Techno-Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Carbon Capture for Industrial and Power Systems

  • 1 March 2024
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

This study, undertaken on behalf of IEAGHG by Element Energy (now a part of ERM), explores the role of CCS in decarbonising small-scale industry and power generation applications. While relatively under investigated compared to their larger scale counterparts, reaching net zero will be dependent on successfully addressing the emissions from small-scale facilities. The findings from the study will be of interest to the broader energy community but, in particular, should benefit project developers, the finance community and policymakers.

Technical Report

The Role of Indices in Assessing the Maturity of CCUS Technologies and their Readiness for Deployment

  • 1 February 2024
  • Industry Insights

This study was undertaken on behalf of IEAGHG by Foresight Transitions Ltd. While a technology may be technically mature, it has become increasingly clear that the technology may not necessarily be considered commercially ‘bankable’ by investors. In this study, the potential for an index or indices to provide that confidence was explored. The findings from the study will be of interest to the broader energy community but, in particular, should benefit technology developers, CCUS end users, investors and policymakers.

Technical Report

International Standards and Testing for Novel Carbonaceous Building Materials

  • 1 December 2023
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Utilisation

Over 4 billion tonnes of cement are produced each year, equating to approximately 8% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and this industry will continue to grow with the expansion of the built environment at a time that emissions need to be reduced. The utilisation or reduction of CO2 within cement, concrete and building materials could be a valuable way to contribute to emissions reductions in the sector , but there are several barriers, including the current state of standards, regulations and policies. This study will provide useful information for the technical and research community, the CCUS industry, the construction industry, and policymakers, providing an unbiased and non-prescriptive evaluation of international standards and testing relevant to novel carbonaceous building materials to address some of those barriers. The market potential for CO2 utilisation processes in the construction industry is also investigated, and the methods for certifying and measuring embodied carbon content of carbonated building materials is evaluated and the challenges therein.

Technical Report

Components of CCS Infrastructure - Interim CO2 Holding Options

  • 27 November 2023
  • Storage
  • Transport

This work, undertaken on behalf of IEAGHG by TNO and SINTEF, provides an overview of temporary / interim CO2 storage, or ‘holding’, options (also called buffers) and investigates the role of buffer storage and its potential to create flexible and robust carbon capture and storage (CCS) chains. The report looks at current and emerging buffer technologies, conducts simulations to demonstrate the temporary storage required for given flow-rate scenarios and discusses the impact of buffer capacity on transport costs. In the report, the storage requested in the chain for normal operation is presented as " temporary storage" and storage to give buffer capacity is presented as " buffer storage". This report has focussed on buffering at the emitter site. The results of this study will benefit CO2 storage site project developers, operators, financiers and regulators.

Technical Report

Classification of Total Storage Resources and Storage Coefficients

  • 1 November 2023
  • Storage

The CO2 Storage Resources Management System (SRMS) is a classification scheme to quantify, classify and categorise CO2 storage resources. It comprises ‘total storage resources’, which are understood as maximum (theoretical) storage quantities that could ever be accommodated in the subsurface. Comprising maximum mobile CO2 in structural/stratigraphic traps, maximum residually trapped CO2 in other parts of the formation, and maximum dissolution potential in remaining formation water. ‘Storable quantities’ are understood as accessible from one or several current or future projects. It is the sum of capacity, contingent and prospective resources. The concept of ‘storage coefficient’ ‘E’ is the ratio of the subsurface volume of CO2 storable quantities to either the total storage resources or the pore volume. The calculation is arguably complicated as E is impacted by lithological heterogeneity, trapping structures, boundary conditions, injection rates, well spacing, fluid properties etc. Due to its complexity, there is much controversy on how to estimate E, with some arguing it should not be used at all and that reservoir simulation is a better path. However, estimates for E are used in most regional mapping studies. This study explores storage resource classification schemes and their evolution in understanding, the calculation of storage resources and the storage co-efficient. This is explored in terms of calculating E for CO2 storage sites, through flow modelling and analytical solutions.

Technical Report

Prospective Integration of Geothermal Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage

  • 23 August 2023
  • Storage
  • Utilisation

The aim of the study is to provide a dispassionate review and overview of scenarios where geothermal energy and CO2 utilisation and storage technologies can be combined for mutual benefit and contribute to Net Zero targets. Sourced from a rich body of literature from global research institutes and some demonstration projects many of the concepts identified have been conceptualised over the past 20 years and are still in the early concept stage. These concepts have been categorised, described and evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. And a map based screening exercise useful for initial evaluation of areas suitable for combined synergies has been undertaken.

Technical Report

Integrating CCS in international cooperation and carbon markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement

  • 18 January 2023
  • Policy & Regulation

This work assesses the status of and outlooks for international cooperation under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and considers how approaches could support the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS). It provides an up-to-date look at the Article 6 rules, the types of markets and mechanisms that could evolve, and the units that could be traded. It then considers how Article 6 could apply to CCS through linked emissions trading systems, crediting systems and alternative approaches.

Technical Report

Applying ISO Standards to Geologic Storage and EOR Projects

  • 1 September 2022
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Storage

The work aims to summarise and synthesise the two ISO Standards relevant to the geological storage of CO2: – ISO 27914:2017 (‘Carbon dioxide capture, transportation and geological storage - Geological storage’) and ISO 27916:2019 (‘Carbon dioxide capture, transportation and geological storage - Carbon dioxide storage using enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR)’) – to provide a high-level understanding of the content into an easily digestible format. By comparison with international regulatory frameworks, and providing case studies of how applicable the standards are to real CO2 storage projects, the study provides a comprehensive overview and concludes on the usefulness of the documents in supporting the implementation of CCUS projects. For the purposes of this overview, the standards will hereafter be referred to as ISO 27914 and ISO 27916

Technical Report

Blue Hydrogen: Beyond the Plant Gate

  • 1 August 2022
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The primary objective of this study is to review the comparative analysis of blue hydrogen production (that is hydrogen derived from fossil fuels and associated CCS) technologies from oil and oil-based feedstocks as well as the supply chain implication. Further, this study includes techno-economic and life cycle assessments of different technology production configurations in regions that have access to oil resources and potential for the deployment of CCS infrastructure at scale.

Technical Report

Low-Carbon Hydrogen from Natural Gas: Global Roadmap

  • 1 August 2022
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The primary objective of this study is to conduct a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the production of natural gas-based hydrogen with accompanying carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. Further, the purpose of this study is to enrich knowledge and compare the deployment of steam methane reforming (SMR), electrified SMR (E-SMR), autothermal reforming (ATR), and partial oxidation (POX) with CCS in the Netherlands. The findings of this study will be of interest to policy makers, industrial emitters, as well as technology developers.

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