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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Review

White Paper: Towards improved guidelines for cost evaluation of carbon capture and storage

  • 11 August 2021
  • Costs of CCUS

One of the key barriers to the wide scale application of CCS is cost. Understanding the costs of CCS is essential to understand the role for and potential of CCS technology in addressing climate change, and for guidance in research activities aiming to reduce the cost and improve the performance of promising new CCS technologies in different applications. This white paper, entitled ‘Towards improved guidelines for cost evaluation of carbon capture and storage’, addresses three of the challenges that remain to establish reliable cost estimates for CCS technologies, namely: estimating the future “Nth-of-a-kind” (NOAK) cost of advanced technologies that are currently at early pre-commercial stages of development; improving existing guidelines for cost evaluation of CCS from industrial applications; and reviewing and providing guidance on available and emerging methods for uncertainty analysis in CCS techno-economic studies.

Technical Review

CCUS in national GHG inventories

  • 28 June 2021
  • Policy & Regulation

This report builds upon previous IEAGHG studies on the topic of carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) in order to assess the potential of a portfolio of CCU technologies to contribute towards Japan’s climate change mitigation goals in 2030 and 2050.

Technical Review

IEAGHG Monitoring Network - ‘Monitoring Expertise Showcase for Post-Closure Monitoring’

  • 23 April 2021
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

This was a little different from usual webinars, whereby the Steering Committee aimed for a more interactive and informal experience for the audience with a scenario-based exercise.<br />Susan Hovorka (<em>BEG at UTexas</em>) introduced the hypothetical site scenario. She emphasised that the aim of the event was to learn about post-closure monitoring options, with an informal ‘game’ to engage panellists with the audience in thinking about CO<sub>2</sub> storage sites and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV). This is a hypothetical site with some gaps in the information, in reality the site characteristics would be much better understood for storage projects and months of planning would have been done prior to making any sort of decisions on monitoring programmes. The hypothetical site scenario is described in figure 1, below. This ‘site’ will be injecting for 25 years, into 50 metre thick sandstone at a depth of 1.5km.

Technical Review

Exporting CO2 for Offshore Storage – The London Protocol’s Export Amendment and Associated Guidelines and Guidance

  • 12 April 2021
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Storage

The London Convention and London Protocol are the global treaties that protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes. Since 2006, the London Protocol has provided a basis in international environmental law to allow carbon dioxide (CO2) storage beneath the seabed when it is safe to do so, and to regulate the injection of CO2 into sub-seabed geological formations for permanent isolation. However, Article 6 of the London Protocol prohibits the export of waste or other matter for dumping in the marine environment. Therefore in 2019, Contracting Parties to the London Protocol adopted a resolution to allow provisional application of the 2009 amendment to Article 6 of the Protocol to allow export of CO2 for storage in sub-seabed geological formations in advance of its ratification, which was progressing slowly.

Technical Review

IEAGHG Risk Management Network Webinar December 2020

  • 25 January 2021
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

This webinar heard from the operators at Shell’s Quest project about their experiences with risk management at the project, which was followed by a panel discussion between representatives from leading CCS developers, as well as experts in the area of risk management.

Technical Review

IEAGHG Monitoring Network Virtual Discussion Panel

  • 25 September 2020
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

This discussion panel was held by webinar on Wednesday 12th August at 10pm BST, with the theme of engaging regulators, looking at ‘Regulation, Industry and Research - Translating Monitoring Research to Meet Commercial Needs’. The panellists comprised different CO2 storage monitoring stakeholders; operators, regulators and researchers and attendees were asked to submit questions for the panellists to consider prior to the event, of which over 120 were received. 70 participants joined the event, in addition to the 8 panellists involved.The aim of the panel was to discuss the translation of CO2 geological storage monitoring research into regulations and commercial-scale projects. It began with a scene setting presentation and framing questions with in-depth and thoughtful discussion with operator, regulator and research representatives from the US, Australia, and Norway.This discussion panel was an ideal opportunity for all stakeholders actively engaged in CO2 geological storage projects and practical research in monitoring to share and learn about how the information from research and our Monitoring Networks can be used to meet commercial needs.

Technical Review

4th International Workshop on Offshore Geologic CO2 Storage

  • 30 April 2020
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

The 4th International Workshop on Offshore Geologic CO2 Storage was held 11-12 February 2020, hosted by the University of Bergen in conjunction with the EU-Funded STEMM-CCS project in Norway. The workshop addressed how to develop CCS projects with offshore storage and built on the recommendations and topics raised at the previous workshops. The aim of the workshop series is to facilitate sharing of knowledge and experiences among those who are doing offshore CO2 storage and those who are interested, and to facilitate international collaboration on projects. Over 150 attendees from 18 countries participated in this 4th workshop.

Technical Review

Agenda Workshop on Hydrogen Production with CCS

  • 21 February 2020
  • Capture
  • Event Proceedings

Hydrogen is a key raw material to other energy intensive industries. Globally, nearly 90% of the hydrogen produced industrially is consumed by the ammonia, methanol and oil refining industries. Moreover, hydrogen could soon play a significant role in the decarbonisation of power, space heating (i.e. industrial, commercial, building and residential heating) and transport fuel (i.e. use of fuel cell vehicles). Although the steam methane reformer route (SMR) is the leading technology for H2 production from natural gas or light hydrocarbons, there are other mature and emerging alternatives. Similarly, while increasing the process efficiency has shown a CO2 emissions reduction of nearly 10%, CCS has been identified as a key strategy to cut down CO2 emissions from hydrogen production. Against this background the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) decided to map activities on hydrogen production with CCS in member states and elsewhere. One conclusion of that exercise was to hold workshop with other organisations. A steering committee was formed to organise this workshop, held on November 6th 2019, and hosted by EDF and Club CO2. This workshop was held for one day, devoted to a plenary session addressing three general topics, and including 90 attendees from 19 countries. Each session included several invited presentations, followed by a discussion among the workshop attendees. This document presents brief summaries of the three plenary sessions topics and one break-out session where all attendees were able to contribute.

Technical Review

Integrated GHG accounting guidelines for CCUS

  • 1 November 2019
  • Policy & Regulation

This report sets out accounting guidelines for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and emissions reduction effects arising from technologies involving carbon dioxide capture, utilisation and geological storage (CCUS).The guidelines apply a project- and product-based approach to measure GHG emission reduction effects, based on comparing the emissions for a CCUS activity with the emissions from a comparable activity delivering the same product or service.A modular approach is applied. Firstly, users calculate the GHG effects arising from the capture (and transport) of CO2 based on the avoided emissions from providing the same service or product as output from the CO2 source facility, but without CO2 capture.The resulting estimate of GHG effects from CO2 capture is carried forward to the utilisation or storage step. In this subsequent step, the GHG emissions from providing the same service without using captured CO2 is estimated and compared to the GHG emissions of providing the service using captured CO2. This provides an overall estimate of the cradle-to-gate GHG effect of CCUS activities.Additional guidance is provided on cradle-to-grave assessment, although this is not the primary focus of these guidelines – the Guidelines focus on annualised GHG emissions accounting cycles rather than whole life emissions analysis.

Technical Review

CO2stCap (Cutting Cost of CO2 Capture in Process Industry)

  • 1 November 2019
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The CO2StCap project (Cutting Cost of CO2 Capture in Process Industry), led by SINTEF, was a research initiative (2015-2019) funded by the Norwegian CLIMIT-Demo programme via Gassnova and the Swedish Energy Agency. The CO2StCap research partners were SINTEF, the University of South-Eastern Norway, Chalmers University of Technology, RISE, and Swerim AB. The industries involved were SSAB, Elkem AS, Norcem Brevik AS, and AGA Gas AB. IEAGHG and GCCSI supported the project. The CO2StCap project investigated CO2 partial capture configurations for cement, pulp and paper, steel, and silicon for solar cells industries. The CO2 capture technology investigated in this project was a MEA-based chemical absorption system, which includes an optimized rich-solvent splitting and absorber inter-stage cooling. The capture rates considered are dependent on the inputs of the specific cases, such as plant characteristics, CO<sub>2</sub> stacks, CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in the flue-gas to be treated, and supply of heat/energy. The CO2StCap project contained a transparent cost assessment, which includes the capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) for retrofitting cases. The main cost metric used in this study is the CO2 capture cost (€/tonne of CO2 captured) and the main elements are described in detail. Steam generation for the CO2 capture system was identified as a key cost element. The steam sources investigated were: steam produced from the excess heat; from a new boiler; and from a low-pressure bleed from existing steam cycles. Other key cost elements identified in this study are the plant lifetime and rate of return. The CO2StCap project also investigated the use of biomass in different sectors and hydrogen in the steel industry.

Technical Review

Guide to Front End Engineering Design studies for selected CO2 Capture and Storage Projects

  • 1 September 2019
  • Capture
  • Storage

This review aims to assess the current understanding on reducing emissions from flaring in the oil and gas industry and to review literature on both the quantification of emissions and current mitigation strategies. IEAGHG published a technical review 2017-TR7 (Oct 2017) which studied emissions along the natural gas supply chain but flaring emissions were not included. This review aims to follow on from 2017-TR7 as a supplementary review on flaring emissions.

Technical Review

CCU Technology Review Synthesis

  • 1 March 2018
  • Utilisation

Based on the backdrop outlined, the overall aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the potential of CCU technologies to contribute towards climate change mitigation objectives (i.e. by reducing emissions of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere).

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