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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Review

2nd International Workshop on Offshore Geologic CO2 Storage

  • 1 November 2017
  • Event Proceedings
  • Storage

This second workshop built on the conclusions and recommendations from the first workshop in 2016 by continuing the theme of ‘how to do’, and including sessions on how to find storage, monitoring developments, CO<sub>2</sub>-EOR potential offshore, and infrastructure options, with presentations from Norway, the UK, the Netherlands, Australia, South Africa and Japan. New to all attendees were presentations on the US Department of Energy (DOE) -supported US projects looking at offshore storage in sedimentary basins in the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic and in basalts in the northern Pacific. Conclusions and recommendations were agreed, with a certain focus on infrastructure issues with the aim of engaging with operators of offshore infrastructure to make them aware of the opportunities from CCS and CO<sub>2</sub>-EOR.

Technical Review

Gas Supply Chain Emissions

  • 1 October 2017
  • Industry Insights

This technical review has been undertaken with the aim of providing a summary of the current status of research into greenhouse gas emissions in the natural gas supply chain. Although 90% or more of the CO<sub>2</sub> produced at gas fired power plants can be captured, emissions from the supply chain may reduce the near-zero-emission image of gas as an energy source. Emissions are predominantly from two sources: <ol> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>Methane emissions during production and also fugitive emissions during transport.</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from gas production installations, gas purification plants, pipeline compressors, LNG liquefaction plants, ships and receiving terminals.</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> </ol>

Technical Review

Peer Review of US RCSP Phase III Projects

  • 1 September 2017
  • Storage

The 2017 international independent expert review of the RCSP had the following aims: <ol> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>To follow up progress in addressing the recommendations of the third review in 2013, both in terms of the overall RCSP and individual regional partnerships and their Phase III projects;</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>To assess the progress on the individual Phase III projects (7) and consider whether the proposed technical work program for each project has achieved its goals and those of the overall RCSP. Each project was expected to respond to the recommendations made in the previous review in 2013 and whether any subsequent modifications to project plans had achieved their desired effect;</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>To assess results and key findings from the Phase III tests across the RCSP;</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>To assess the overall technical program of the RCSP, address the synergies between the 7 Phase III projects and how they complement each other and how collectively they can provide a technical basis for future commercial scale projects in the USA;</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>To assess how the RCSP compares, complements and contrasts with similar projects underway worldwide and how the information from these projects can help build an international knowledge base on CO<sub>2</sub> capture and storage.</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> </ol>

Technical Review

ReCAP Project Understanding Cost of Retrofitting

  • 1 August 2017
  • Costs of CCUS
  • Industry Insights

The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the cost of retrofitting CO2 capture in a range of refinery types typical of those found in Europe. These included bo0th simple and high complexity refineries covering typical European refinery capacities from 100,000 to 350,000 bbl/d.  The assessments performed in this report focused on retrofit costs including modifications in the refineries, interconnections, and additional CHP and utility facilities. The main focus of the study was on CO2 capture from refinery Base Case 4, which was considered to be the most relevant reference for existing European refineries of interest for CO2 capture retrofit. Considering the large number of cases (16) and their complexity, a hybrid methodology is used to evaluate the cost of the sections (CO2 capture and compression, utilities, and interconnecting) of the concept. In this approach, four of the 16 capture cases were selected to represent a wide range of CO2 capture capacity and flue gas CO2 content. In each case, detailed assessments were undertaken. These detailed cost assessments form, based on subsequent scaling, the basis for the assessment of the other cases. The scaling equations have a larger purpose in that they can be used by refineries/policy experts to evaluate capital costs of retrofitting CO2 capture to refineries of interest.

Technical Review

IEA CCS Build Out Unit

  • 1 June 2017
  • Industry Insights

This study compares the anticipated CCS build-out rates with those achieved in other sectors, where comparable technologies in those sectors have been used as analogues. In particular, it addresses whether the build-out rates for CCS, as depicted in Figure ES.1, are tenable, i.e. whether the claimed build out is possible once the programme is up and underway. It does not attempt to address the timing of when the build-out would begin or, more particularly, the veracity of the timing of the start of build-out as depicted in Figure ES.1.

Technical Review

Evaluating the Costs of Retrofitting CO2

  • 1 April 2017
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The purpose of this report is to present a reference document that describes the technical basis and key assumptions to be used in evaluating the performance of the integrated oil refinery without and with CO<sub>2</sub> capture. The engineering and design basis, and various assumptions on feedstock, additives, products and by-products, and the specification of the CO<sub>2</sub> that are outlined in this report will be used as a reference for developing the refinery configurations to be developed in the study which will be published once the project is completed. Where applicable, information retrieved from IEAGHG document “Criteria for Technical and Economic Assessment of Plants with Low CO<sub>2</sub> Emissions” Version C-6, March 2014, are included.

Technical Review

Reference data and Supporting Literature Reviews for SMR Based Hydrogen Production with CCS

  • 1 March 2017
  • Capture
  • Industry Insights

Over the past years a number of demonstration CCS projects have been developed around the world with the aim to provide valuable information, assist in the design of large CO<sub>2 </sub>capture plants and to advance the understanding of CO<sub>2 </sub>behaviour in the subsurface. The objectives of the CCS demonstration projects can be summarized as follows: <!-- wp:acf/columns {"name":"acf/columns","data":{"padding_top":"1","_padding_top":"field_columns_fields_padding_top","padding_bottom":"1","_padding_bottom":"field_columns_fields_padding_bottom","margin_top":"0","_margin_top":"field_columns_fields_margin_top","margin_bottom":"0","_margin_bottom":"field_columns_fields_margin_bottom"},"mode":"preview"} --> <!-- wp:acf/column-content {"name":"acf/column-content","mode":"preview"} --> <!-- wp:list --><ul> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>Demonstrating the technical feasibility of a particular technology</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>Gaining operational experience and economic information</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --> <!-- wp:list-item --><!-- wp:list-item --><li>Gathering data to support the development of large scale projects</li><!-- /wp:list-item --><!-- /wp:list-item --></ul><!-- /wp:list --> <!-- /wp:acf/column-content --> <!-- /wp:acf/columns --> The purpose of this technical review is to provide an overview of the major on-going Demo CCS projects applied to SMR Hydrogen Plants with a focus on the CO<sub>2 </sub>capture system. In particular, the technical approach used for the design and execution of the Demo Plants and the relevant peculiarities are outlined.

Technical Review

Ethane and CO2 shipping

  • 1 March 2017
  • Transport

The study is a first stage assessment of a novel concept of transporting ethane from the USA in dedicated maritime carriers to Europe, which are modified from standard designs to be equipped to carry both ethane and CO<sub>2</sub>, so that CO<sub>2</sub> can be transported back (back hauled) to the USA for use in CO2-EOR operations.

Technical Review

Review of CO2 Storage Basalts

  • 1 January 2017
  • Storage

This technical review has been undertaken with the aim of providing a high level overview of the current status of basalts as an option for the geological storage of CO2. The review also includes a short section on the storage potential of ultramafic rocks.<br />Two high profile sites, CarbFix in Iceland and the Wallula project in Washington State have both injected and monitored CO2 storage in basalts since 2012 and research has recently been published for both sites. Basalts are important storage sites to consider for CCS as they comprise approximately 10% of the Earth’s surface and are often located in areas where no other storage options exist. Basalts have a high weight percentage of Ca, Mg and Fe rich minerals which react with CO2 to form carbonates. At the pilot projects Wallula and CarbFix, in-situ carbonisation has been proven to occur and within much shorter timescales than initially predicted. In conventional deep sandstone aquifer storage sites, CO2 remains buoyant for 1,000s to 100,000s of years and consequently this form of storage relies predominately on structural and solution trapping within the reservoirs to prevent CO2 leakage.

Technical Review

National Storage CO2 Assessment Guidance

  • 1 October 2016
  • Storage

This guide provides information on where to find the material required to undertake initial national scale storage assessments. It is designed to help government bodies and policy makers with limited prior carbon capture and storage (CCS) experience find information regarding the methodology of conducting an assessment. A nationwide storage estimate is fundamental to progress CCS as a climate mitigation technology as it will determine how suitable the regional geology is for CO2 storage and provide an initial indication of capacity.

Technical Review

Review of Project Permits Under the London Protocol - As Assessment of the Proposed P18-4 CO2 Storage Sites

  • 1 May 2016
  • Policy & Regulation
  • Storage

The London Convention and Protocol is one of the first global agreements to protect the marine environment. The Protocol promotes the protection of the marine environment by prohibiting the dumping of wastes and other matter into the sea. Under the Protocol all dumping is prohibited, with the exception of a limited number of selected wastes. In 2007, an amendment entered into force which permitted CO2 streams to be considered for dumping under the London Protocol. The amendment was shortly followed up with a set of “Specific Guidelines for Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Streams for Disposal into Sub-seabed Geological Formations”, developed to support the National Authorities of Contracting Parties in evaluating permit applications for CO2 disposal activities in their marine territories. As few offshore CO2 storage sites have been permitted in the territories of Contracting Parties, there is no evidence of the application of the above mentioned guidelines to actual permitting processes. The P18-4 field is a near-depleted gas field at a depth of 3.5 km under the seabed, located approximately 20 km off the Dutch coast in the North Sea. The operator of the gas field applied for a CO2 storage permit to the Dutch authorities in 2011, for the storage of a maximum of 8 Mton CO2. An irrevocable storage permit for P18-4 was provided to the operator in September 2013, however the project has been postponed indefinitely due to economic constraints. The objective of this report is to assess to what extent the proposed P18-4 storage site, originally part of the ROAD CCS Project, complies with the London Protocol’s 2012 Specific Guidelines for Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Streams for Disposal into Sub-seabed Geological Formations, and therefore the 1996 London Protocol itself. The assessment has been achieved through a simple, but systematic, cross-check of the requirements of the Specific Guidelines against the contents of the application material provided by the operator to the National Authority. This involves the appraisal of approximately 1100 pages of submitted material in order to identify evidence of compliance

Technical Review

Review of GHG Accounting Rules for CCS

  • 1 May 2016
  • Policy & Regulation

This report aims to provide a comparative review of how current rules for compiling and reporting inventories of GHG emissions and removals, and for MRV of GHG emissions and removals (hereafter collectively termed “GHG accounting rules”) apply to CCS activities worldwide. These include international, regional and national approaches employed under policies and measures such as mandatory GHG emissions reporting, carbon taxes and emission trading schemes (ETS). The report will identify any significant differences between accounting protocols for CCS, the reasons for differences, and any issues that might arise from their differences. It will identify issues, gaps and potential barriers emerging from the review and possible measures that could be taken to support CCS deployment.

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