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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

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Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Report

Low-Carbon Hydrogen from Natural Gas: Global Roadmap

  • 1 August 2022
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The primary objective of this study is to conduct a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the production of natural gas-based hydrogen with accompanying carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. Further, the purpose of this study is to enrich knowledge and compare the deployment of steam methane reforming (SMR), electrified SMR (E-SMR), autothermal reforming (ATR), and partial oxidation (POX) with CCS in the Netherlands. The findings of this study will be of interest to policy makers, industrial emitters, as well as technology developers.

Technical Report

Start-up and Shutdown Protocol for Natural Gas-fired Power Stations with CO2 Capture

  • 1 August 2022
  • Capture

In modern power grids, a power plant with CO2 capture will be required to operate as a low-carbon, flexible, dispatchable power generator. A recent IEAGHG study showed it is possible to achieve net-zero CO2 emissions from coal-fired and gas-fired power generation by employing higher capture rates and, in the case of coal-fired generation, by employing a mix of capture rates and biomass.

Technical Report

Defining the Value of Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage for a Low-Carbon Future

  • 1 August 2022
  • Capture
  • Utilisation

A key objective of the study was to explore the concept of ‘value’, when applied to a technology deployed in a low-carbon energy system. CCUS is an available mitigation option to support energy transitions and has been highlighted by global IAMs as a necessary technology to limit anthropogenic warming to well below 2°C. Despite this, there continues to be dissent among academics, business leaders and policymakers regarding the role CCUS can or should play in a low-carbon future. This opposition appears to stem not only from a narrow and incomplete focus on cost, and the perception that CCUS is a high-cost mitigation option under all circumstances, but also a failure to recognise the value of CCUS from other perspectives, such as human, social and environmental, to support the energy transition to net zero. As a result, a wider, deeper, and multi-disciplinary review of the ‘value’ of CCUS is explored. Recent literature spanning sector-specific techno-economic models, global and regional IAMs, and social studies to explore the diverse value of CCUS is reviewed. Results from Princeton University’s Net-Zero America study are summarised, where five alternate modelled pathways to net-zero emissions in the United States provided an exceptional level of sectoral, temporal and spatial granularity to highlight the value of CCUS in these pathways. Finally, a semi-quantitative, 2x2 decision framework was introduced to help policymakers screen the relative competitiveness of CCUS as a mitigation option across multiple domains. This framework was applied across a number of case studies, including the United States, the UK, Indonesia, Australia and Japan, to highlight under what circumstances CCUS might prove to be a valuable mitigation option to help these jurisdictions achieve time-bound mitigation goals.

Technical Report

Mineral Carbonation using Mine Tailings - A Strategic Overview of Potential and Opportunities

  • 1 July 2022
  • Utilisation

The aim of this review is to evaluate the techno-economic viability of AMC, and the comparative maturity of the technology, based on publicly available information. This report is primarily concerned with magnesium-silicate rich mine tailings and ex situ processing to induce carbonation suitably reactive rock. Magnesium silicate rocks can potentially offer significant volumes of material for CO2 capture compared with calcium-based materials

Technical Report

From Carbon Dioxide to Building Materials - Improving Process Efficiency

  • 1 March 2022
  • Utilisation

IEAGHG commissioned a study to investigate how captured CO2 can be used in building materials. It also explored the processes that are used to capture this CO2 and includes case studies where these processes are happening. The work has evaluated CO2 utilisation in the context of cement and concrete production by looking into the effects of carbonation on material utilisation and the design of a potential carbonation plant. The market analysis and market pull of carbonated building products is also covered.

Technical Report

Feasibility Study on Achieving Deep Decarbonization in Worldwide Fertilizer Production

  • 1 March 2022
  • Capture

This study investigated the life-cycle environmental footprint of nitrogen fertiliser production, with and without CO2 capture, in four different regions: the United Kingdom; Norway; Saudi Arabia; and the United States. The goal was to demonstrate how deep decarbonisation of fertiliser production could be achieved in each of these regions and compare the differences between them. Fertiliser production is an important element in the global food production chain and is key to securing sustenance for the growing global population. This is expected to increase to 10 billion by 20501 and consequently fertiliser production, which currently accounts for about 1.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions2, will continue to be essential.

Technical Report

Prime Solvent candidates for next generation of PCC plants

  • 1 February 2022
  • Capture

The primary goal of the study is to review prospective prime solvents and process designs to accelerate the deployment of CO2 capture technologies. IEAGHG commissioned Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates (UAE) to conduct a comprehensive assessment of promising aqueous and water-lean PCC solvents. This study identifies and characterises prime solvent candidates for the next generation of post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) technology. The solvent comparison was carried out against a benchmark 30 wt.% monoethanolamine (MEA) aqueous solution and the IEAGHG benchmark system (IEAGHG 2019/09)

Technical Report

Criteria for Depleted Reservoirs to be Developed for CO2 Storage

  • 1 January 2022
  • Storage

In this review we consider advantages and disadvantages of using depleted fields in comparison to deep saline reservoirs as carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites. The study consists of three parts. The first looks at ten case studies with operational experience and the insights they offer. The second presents original research on three factors that may impact evaluation of depleted field storage opportunities: 1) the impact of reservoir pressure depletion on storage capacity prediction; 2) the effect of residual hydrocarbons on capacity and injectivity; and 3) the net economic benefit of inherited hydrocarbon infrastructure, including elements that are reusable and those that are not. The third section is a discussion of criteria for evaluating depleted fields for CO2 storage.

Technical Report

Current State of Knowledge Regarding the Risk of Induced Seismicity at CO2 Storage Projects

  • 1 January 2022
  • Storage

The primary objective of this study is to summarize the levels of induced seismicity observed in or near CO2 storage sites, and the consequences of the induced seismicity in terms of impact on people, as well as the environment, assets and reputation of operators, authorities, and on CCS technology. A second objective is to gain an understanding on processes that industry and authorities employ to manage the risk of induced seismicity. A third objective is to present notable case studies where outreach measures have supported operators and regulators in managing concerns of stakeholders in connection with induced seismicity. The final task of the study is to identify current research and innovation trends to better manage the risk of induced seismicity.

Technical Report

Techno-economic Performance, Opportunities, and Challenges

  • 1 December 2021
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

The aim of this study is to provide a transparent framework to evaluate the potential (in terms of sequestered and displaced carbon), and economics (in terms of cost of carbon avoided and removed) of a non-exhaustive selection of NETs pathways. Ecosystem and socio-economic impacts associated with their deployment is also quantified. The study sets out to help the carbon capture and storage (CCS) community in trying to gain a better understanding of the costs and value of NETs. It also helps the modelling community in being able to better model the role of NETs; and policy/decision makers in having more information on costs, value and scalability of NETs.

Technical Report

Global Assessment of Direct Air Capture Costs

  • 1 December 2021
  • Capture
  • Costs of CCUS

This study aims to improve the current DACCS cost-performance evidence base by synthesising data from the recent literature and technology developers to explore the economic feasibility of different DACCS technologies (both liquid and solid based systems) across timescales, capacities, configurations, and numerous global siting factors. It also provides recommendations for the integrated assessment modelling (IAM) community and policymakers to inform next steps for DACCS implementation and deployment.

Technical Report

CO2 as a Feedstock: Comparison of CCU Pathways

  • 1 November 2021
  • Utilisation

The aim of this study is to present a holistic assessment of the viability (both technically and from a market perspective) of carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) routes and to identify areas of strength and weakness within individual routes, compare different CCU pathways, and identify common drivers, barriers, and enablers. The results of this study will be of interest to the technical community, as well as industry and manufacturers. The study assessed commodities across four different CCU categories (building materials, chemicals, polymers and fuels) regarding their mitigation potential, market uptake potential, technical scalability and other impacts.

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