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Technology Collaboration Programme by IEA

Explore our Publications Library

Discover the latest advances carbon capture and storage research

Technical Report

Distributed Collection of CO2

  • 1 September 2007
  • Capture
  • Transport

This study examines the design issues and costs of collecting CO2 captured from multiple distributed sources down to quantities of 5000 tpa. It includes a spreadsheet model for sizing pipelines in a branched collection network with multiple pressure levels. This model also estimates overall collection costs including those for compression using unit costs for construction in the UK.

Technical Report

Upgraded calculator for CO2 pipeline systems

  • 1 March 2009
  • Costs of CCUS
  • Transport

A contract to develop and upgrade the original Woodhill program and the network program was awarded to Gastec UK/AMEC who had already produced the new network design program. After obtaining the original code from Woodhill-Frontier options were examined and it was felt that as both programs were Excel-based it would be simplest to amalgamate them into one program using the original Woodhill interface where possible.The possibility of adding a graphical map-based interface for the distributed collection network was investigated as an additional option but although possible the necessary licence for commercial use was found to be too costly. It was on this basis that GastecUK/AMEC proceeded with the development of the upgraded calculator.

Technical Review

Development of a Global CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure

  • 1 August 2010
  • Transport

Projections of the scale on which CCS needs to be deployed to meet targets for CO2 emissions reductions indicate that a massive CO2 pipeline infrastructure will be required. To date CCS systems have tended to be based on dedicated pipelines connecting source to sink although some studies of regional CO2 pipeline infrastructure requirements have been carried out. The purpose of this study is to examine the wider issues including design, financing, economics and regional differences.

Technical Report

CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure

  • 1 December 2013
  • Transport

The deliverables for this study consist of a reference manual, database, interactive web tool and webinar. The reference manual highlights key design, construction, operational and regulatory learnings. A database, containing more than 100 data elements, complements the reference manual

Technical Report

Evaluation and analysis of the performance of dehydration units for CO2 capture

  • 1 April 2014
  • Capture
  • Transport

The purpose of the study is to examine the characteristics of the various dehydration processes and the way they can be best integrated into the CCS system. Moisture in CO<sub>2</sub> can lead to corrosion and hydrate formation. It is necessary to dehydrate CO<sub>2</sub> streams prior to transporting the product in carbon steel pipelines. Several different types of CO<sub>2</sub> capture processes exist. The type selected for use is dependent upon the basic type of combustion process in operation, e.g. coal or natural gas. The CO<sub>2</sub> produced by the various combustion and associated capture processes is of different quality, containing different inerts and impurities, with varying compositions and conditions. The dehydration process can be significantly affected by these differences; it was therefore necessary to consider the different types of capture process separately within this study.

Technical Report

Operational Flexibility of CO2 Transport and Storage

  • 1 March 2016
  • Storage
  • Transport

This study has reviewed different transport and storage scenarios to reflect the range of full-scale commercial operations. In addition to a wide ranging literature review a survey of industrial, utility, pipeline and CO<sub>2</sub>-EOR operators was also conducted to obtain their insights of CO<sub>2</sub> transport and storage. Owing to the sensitivity of these commercial operations it has not been possible to attribute background information to either individuals or their companies. Anonymity has not prevented the inclusion of real world data on exhaust gas composition from different sources including power generation (coal and natural gas), oil refining, gas processing, cement, hydrogen production, and ethanol production. It also includes background information on actual CO<sub>2</sub> pipeline operation, including network hubs, and CO<sub>2</sub> CO<sub>2</sub>-EOR experience in the United States. Experience from different industrial scale injection projects such as Sleipner, Snøhvit and In Salah, has been included. The study has investigated how flexible operation affects CO<sub>2</sub> storage and the measures adopted to accommodate intermittent supply. There are a series of prioritized recommendations based on the gaps in knowledge.

Technical Review

Ethane and CO2 shipping

  • 1 March 2017
  • Transport

The study is a first stage assessment of a novel concept of transporting ethane from the USA in dedicated maritime carriers to Europe, which are modified from standard designs to be equipped to carry both ethane and CO<sub>2</sub>, so that CO<sub>2</sub> can be transported back (back hauled) to the USA for use in CO2-EOR operations.

Technical Report

Re-Use of Oil & Gas Facilities for CO2 Transport and Storage

  • 22 June 2018
  • Storage
  • Transport

Our recent study ‘Case Studies of CO2 Storage in Depleted Oil and Gas Fields’ (2017-01) concluded that CO2 storage in depleted fields would not only be viable with potentially lower risk but could also be relatively cost effective, providing important intermediate-scale storage resources. The report highlighted that re-using an O&G fields would be beneficial as “there would likely be cost savings over saline aquifer sites, particularly in the characterisation stages (where there is the advantage of production history and proved hydrocarbon retention to reduce uncertainty in containment and capacity)”.

Technical Report

The Status and Challenges of CO2 Shipping Infrastructures

  • 1 July 2020
  • Transport

Large-scale CO2 storage will entail substantial transportation of CO2 from either point-sources or hub collection points to geological formations capable of storing thousands of tonnes of CO2 in supercritical form. In many parts of the world the most suitable storage options for large-scale capacity will be in offshore formations such as the North Sea. Consequently, it is important to build an understanding of the most suitable techno-economic solutions for the trans-shipment of CO2 from shore facilities to offshore storage locations. This study has explored a series of options to gain a more detailed comparison of shipping CO2 either directly by sea tanker to a storage site, or via an intermediate stage, to a shore facility in closer proximity to a storage site prior to transfer via pipeline. These options have also been compared to direct transfer via pipeline.

Technical Report

Components of CCS Infrastructure - Interim CO2 Holding Options

  • 27 November 2023
  • Storage
  • Transport

This work, undertaken on behalf of IEAGHG by TNO and SINTEF, provides an overview of temporary / interim CO2 storage, or ‘holding’, options (also called buffers) and investigates the role of buffer storage and its potential to create flexible and robust carbon capture and storage (CCS) chains. The report looks at current and emerging buffer technologies, conducts simulations to demonstrate the temporary storage required for given flow-rate scenarios and discusses the impact of buffer capacity on transport costs. In the report, the storage requested in the chain for normal operation is presented as " temporary storage" and storage to give buffer capacity is presented as " buffer storage". This report has focussed on buffering at the emitter site. The results of this study will benefit CO2 storage site project developers, operators, financiers and regulators.

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